We have analysed 305 Y-chromosomes from seven regions in Sweden to find out if there is population stratification. The Y-STR-minimal haplotype markers including DYS385 a and b were analysed and haplogroups were defined by the SNPs TAT, 92R7, M9, M17 and Genuine Ugg Boots Sale Uk
SRY1532. The STRs were analysed on an ABI377 and the SNPs by Pyrosequencing. Y-haplogroups 1, 2, 3, 16 and 26 were found in approximately equal frequencies in the sub-populations. Also, the gene diversity within the STR-haplotypes, analysed by the Markov chain algorithm, showed no differences. Thus, the whole database can be used for frequency calculations.
A novel and rapid laser ablation method for the fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOE) in ZnSe that takes advantage of the relatively low intensity damage threshold of the material is presented. Genuine Ugg Boots Sale Uk
The structures were characterized in terms of their shape and diffraction efficiency at normal incidence under 10.6 μm radiation for TE and TM polarizations. Sample surface polishing as well as the possible effect of the melted zone and structural modification of the material around the ablated region on the power transmission capability of the grating are also discussed.